Useful Linux basic commands with Description

LINUX BASIC COMMANDS

  • alias: Allows you to set aliases and view the current aliases.
  • awk: Search for a pattern within a file.
  • alien: Converts .tgz and rpm’s to .deb format.
  • banner: Prints characters as a poster.
  • badblocks: Searches a device for bad blocks.
  • biff: Turns mail notification on and off.
  • bg: move a job running in the foreground to the background.
  • bzip2: Used to compress and decompress files. Similar to gzip.
  • cardctl: Used to control PCMCIA cards.
  • cfdisk: Used to partition a hard disk.
  • cp: Copy
  • chattr: Changes the attributes of a file or folder.
  • chroot: Change the root directory for a command.
  • chmod: Used to change permissions on a directory or file.
  • chown: Used to change the owner of a file or directory.
  • chgrp: Used to change the group a file belongs to.
  • clear: Clears the screen
  • cpio: Copies file.
  • cat: Displays the content of a file
  • chpasswd: Used to change a large number of passwords at once.
  • cd: Changes directories.
  • chage: Sets password aging parameters.
  • cal: Displays a calendar.
  • cron: Used to execute commands at a certain time.
  • crontab: Allows you to view or edit the current cron jobs.
  • dselect: A graphical front end for dpkg.
  • dpkg: Installs packages on debain distro’s.
  • date: Prints current date to the screen
  • du: Lists disk usage in a directory.
  • df: Reports disk usage information. df -h
  • dmesg: Used to view the kernel boot file.
  • dump: Used for backing up.
  • edquota: Sets quotas for specific users.
  • env: Lists current environment variables.
  • fdisk: Used to create/edit/delete partitions.
  • fsck: Checks a file system for consistency.
  • fg: Used to send jobs to the background.
  • fuser: Checks to see what processes and users have open files.
  • find: Searches for a file.
  • free: Will show total memory, used memory, and free memory.
  • gcc: Used to compile C, Assembler, and Preprocessed C source.
  • gpasswd: Used to set a password for a group.
  • grep: Used to search through a file for a specified pattern.
  • getty: Set terminal type, modes, speed, and line discipline
  • groupadd: Create new group account.
  • groupdel: Deletes a group.
  • groupmod: Used to modify a group.
  • groups: Shows what groups a user is part of.
  • gunzip: Uncompress files compressed by gzip.
  • head: Displays the first 10 lines of a file to the screen.
  • hdparm: Gets disk information.
  • history: Lists recently executed commands.
  • host: Used to get DNS info.
  • htpasswd: Allows you to set usernames and passwords for your
  • websever.
  • id: Display information about yourself or another user.
  • insmod: Installs modules.
  • init: Used to change run levels.
  • isapnp: Sets up ISA cards.
  • icmpinfo: Intercept and interpret ICMP packets
  • jobs: Used to show jobs running in the background.
  • join: Join lines of two sorted.
  • kill: Used to kill a process.
  • killall: Kill processes by command name.
  • kernelcfg: A graphical application configures Linux.
  • klogd: Control which kernel messages.
  • linuxconf: A command line GUI which lets you configure your linux
  • lpc: Used to control a line printer.
  • lpq: View the print spool queue.
  • lpr: Send files to the printer spool queue.
  • ls: Displays a directories contents.
  • ln: Used to create hard and symbolic links.
  • less: Display the contents of a file
  • locate: Search for a file or directory.
  • ldd: Shows what shared libraries a program is dependent on.
  • ldconfig: Used to configure/view shared libraries.
  • last: Lists logins and reboots.
  • lastlog: Print the last login times for system accounts.
  • lsmod: Lists loaded modules.
  • lsattr: Lists the attributes for a file or folder.
  • logrotate: Used to manipulate log files.
  • mount: Used by itself, reports the currently mounted files.
  • modinfo: Give info about the module.
  • modprobe: Queries modules.
  • man: Displays the Man page for a given command.
  • mesg: Used to allow/not allow ‘write’.
  • manpath: Attempts to determine the path to a man page.
  • mail: Used to send and receive mail.
  • mkdir: Make directory
  • mke2fs: Used to format a partition with the Ext2 file system.
  • mv: Move/Rename
  • merge: Merge multiple files together.
  • more: Lets you page through text one screen full at a time.
  • minicom: Great utility for troublshooting a modem.
  • mkbootdisk: Used to make a boot disk.
  • ntsysv: Used to select what services should automatically start.
  • nice: Used to set process priorities.
  • nslookup: Used to get DNS info from name servers.
  • netstat: Shows active sockets.
  • ps: Displays current processes
  • ping: Used to test connectivity between two hosts.
  • pwd: Present Working Directory
  • pwconv: Used to set up the /etc/shadow file.
  • pnpdump: Determines settings for existing ISA cards.
  • quota: Allows users to view their own disk quotas.
  • quotaon: Turns on disk quotas for the system.
  • quotaoff: Turns off disk quotas for the system.
  • repquota: Provides reports of disk usage for various users.
  • rmmod: Removes modules.
  • rm: Remove
  • rmdir: Remove directory
  • rpm: (RedHat flavors only)Used to install RPM’s
  • rpcinfo: Used to see what rpc services are available.
  • route: Used to view/change routes between you and other hosts.
  • smbclient: Used to connect to Windows shares or Samba.
  • smbadduser: Maps linux user names to Windows NT user names.
  • smbpasswd: Used to update the smbpasswd file with new accounts.
  • set: Used to read and write variables.
  • setquota: Used to set disk quotas.
  • sort: Sorts lines in a file by alphabetical order.
  • sndconfig: Used to probe and configure a sound card.
  • su: Change to Super User (root).
  • spell: Checks for spelling errors in a file.
  • startx: Start the X Server (GUI)
  • shutdown: Shutdown machine
  • suspend: Places a shell in the background.
  • showmount: Shows mount information for an NFS server.
  • swapon: Turns on the swapfile.
  • swapoff: Turns off the swapfile.
  • testparm: Used to troubleshoot Samba.
  • tar: Used to compress multiple files.
  • timeconfig: Used to set the timezone on your machine.
  • tac: View a file from the last line up.
  • touch: Creates an empty file.
  • tail: Displays the last 10 lines of a file to the screen.
  • talk: Used to chat with another user on the same machine.
  • tr: Converts one set of characters to another.
  • traceroute: Used to track the path a packet takes to a host.
  • top: Shows information about the most CPU-intensive Apps.
  • useradd: Add a user.
  • usermod: Modify a user.
  • userdel: Delete a user.
  • umount: Removes a device from the filesystem.
  • updatedb: Updates the locate database.
  • uname: Determines OS name, version and machine name.
  • vmstat: Lists information on memory usage.
  • vi: A text editor
  • whereis: Finds documentation files.
  • who: Tells you who is logged into your server.
  • whoami: Tells you your user information.
  • wc: Print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
  • which: Finds the full path for a command.
  • write: Used to send a message to another user.
  • whois: Used to query servers for info on.
  • wall: Writes a message to all logged in users.
  • xman: Graphical interface for man pages.
  • xf86config: Used to configure X.
  • zcat: Read files that have been compressed with gzip.
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